This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using
POP gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris (POP) which is calcium sulphate with
half molecule of water of crystallization (CaSO 4 .1/2H 2 0) and hygroscopic
characteristic obtained by duly calcined the material that is Gypsum
(CaSO 4 .2H 2 0). It possess an outstanding property of setting and subsequent
hardening when mixed with water (Smith, 1896).
Gypsum is basically the raw material require to manufacture Plaster of
Paris. This is cleaned and washed for removal of impurities, dried in sunlight
and then pulverized. Gypsum powder are calcined in a rotary drum calcinatory
using light diesel oil/firewood/coal as fuel. The low pressure burner is
sufficient to reach the calcinations temperature range from 160 o c to 180 o c.The
process of calcinations is done over a period of about 2 hours so that one –
halves molecule of water is removed to obtain the required properties after
cooling, the calcined powder is passed through 150 mesh and packed in airtight
polythene lined bags.
Modern Gypsum board has it predecessor a product called “sackett
board”. A composite material that was made of layer of thin plaster placed
between four piles of wool felt paper. Sackett board was patented in 1894, By
Augustine Sackett, The man generally considered to be the grandfather of
gypsum board manufacturing industry.
Prior to 1894, Gypsum had been used for thousand of years as building
material and as an architectural detailing element. The first use of gypsum in
building construction appears to occurred in 3700BC, when an Egyptian used
gypsum blocks and plaster applied over woven straw lath in the building of the
pyramid of cheops.
A French chemist (Lavoiser, 1710), Analysed the chemical make up of
gypsum, his work and subsequent research by a group of his contemporary
chemists coupled with the discovery and mining of huge reserve of gypsum
near Paris leads to the wholesale use of plaster of Paris as a building material.
Plaster of Paris is extensively used in ceramics industry for preparation
of models and moulds. It is also used as main raw material in the manufacture
of toy and statues, chalk, crayon, gypsum plaster board and decorative picture
frame besides wide range of application in interior decoration of building and
other establishment (Alfred, 1896).
As there is growing building construction activities and advancement in
technology, POP gypsum board are used in home and offices and indeed all
type of building where people congregate such as schools, halls, churches,
mosques, airports e.t.c.
POP gypsum ceiling board provides more aesthetic outlook, offer
adequate resistance to heat and sufficient resistance to fire.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Recent studies indicate that asbestos ceiling contains hazardous material
from the health point of view. Prolonged inhalation of asbestos fiber can cause
lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis. Therefore it has been banned from use
in many developed country due to the chrysotile content.
To this end, there is need for alternative ceiling material which is
durable, reliable and affordable.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project is to design and produce ceiling board using
POP gypsum materials
The objectives of the study is highlighted below :-
To produce durable lightweight building material for ceiling
To determine the strength of the ceiling board.
To determine it durability.
To determine the water absorption capacity.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The use of gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted
and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been
used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of POP gypsum material as
ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable
absorption of heat from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and
production of ceiling board using POP gypsum material. In this project, water
absorption test and flexural strength test was carried out to determine the water
capacity, strength and durability of the sample made up of composite quantity
of POP plaster, water and fibre (villas) when subjected to loading.