Bamboo has a long and well-established tradition as a building material
throughout the world’s tropical and sub-tropical regions. It is widely used for
many forms of construction, in particular for housing in rural areas. It is estimated
that there are 1200 species growing in about 14.5 million hectares area. Most of
them grow in Asia, Africa and Latin America. It grows approximately 7.5 to 40cm a
day, with world record being 1.2m in 24 hours in Japan. Commercially important
species of bamboo usually mature in four or five years time, after which multiple
harvests are possible every second year, for up to 120 years in some species and
indefinitely in others.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT
The world timber demand is increasing at a rapid rate but the timber supply is
depleting. It’s been found through research that bamboo can suitably replace
timber and other materials in construction and other works. Industrially treated
bamboo has shown great potential for production of composite materials and
components which are cost-effective and can be successfully utilized for
structural and non-structural applications in construction. Bamboo is one of the
oldest traditional building materials used by mankind.
The bamboo culm, or stem, has been made into an extended diversity of products
ranging from domestic household products to industrial applications. Examples of
bamboo products are food containers, handicrafts, toys, furniture, flooring, pulp
and paper, boats, charcoal, musical instruments and weapons. Bamboo is quite
common for bridges, scaffolding and housing, but it is usually used as a temporary
exterior structural material. In many overly populated regions of the tropics,
certain bamboos supply the one suitable material that is sufficiently cheap and
plentiful to meet the extensive need for economical housing. It has been used in
bicycles, windmills, scales etc. Its uses are broad and plentiful.
With the advancement of science and technology and the tight supply of timber,
new methods are needed for the processing of bamboo to make it more durable
and more usable in terms of building materials. Studies have been carried out on
the basic properties and on processing of bamboo into various kinds of composite
products. Bamboo has several unique advantages like ability to grow fast with a
high yield and also it matures quickly. Additionally bamboo can be grown
abundantly and that too at a lower cost which makes it more economical.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to discuss the Utilization of Bamboo for
construction is achieved by a structural frame technique which is related to same
approach applied in usual timber frame design and construction.
1.3 GENERAL USES OF BAMBOO
• Soil stabilization, wind break, urban waste water treatment and reduction of
• Creating a fire line in traditional forests-due to the high content of silica.
• Removing atmospheric carbon- bamboo can capture 17 metric tons of carbon
per hectare per year, i.e., effectively than any other species.
• The shoots are edible.
• Building and construction.
• Small scale and cottage industries, for handicrafts and other products.
• New generation products as wood substitutes
• Industrial products
• Transportation industry- truck bodies, railway carriages etc.
• Boards and furniture
• Paper and pulp industry
• Long time source of biomass for industry
• Fuel source- capable of generating 1000-6000 cal/g- for households and small
industries is an age-old, continuing practice.
1.3 ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO
The various advantages of bamboo are mentioned below:
1. Light, strong and versatile
2. Environment friendly
3. Accessible to the poor
4. Self renewing resource
5. Fast growing
6. Highly productive
1.4 DISADVANTAGES/PROBLEM OF BAMBOO
The major disadvantages of bamboo are as follows:
1. Requires preservation
2. Shaped by nature
3. Durability–bamboo is subjected to attack by fungi, insects; for this reason,
untreated bamboo structures are viewed as temporary with an expected life of
not more than 5 years.
4. Jointing–although many jointing techniques exist, their structural efficiency is
5. Lack of design guidance and codes.
6. Prone to catch fire very fast by the friction among the culms during wind, and
is seen to cause forest fires.
1.5 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO
Tensile strength of bamboo is very high if we compare it with steel. The reason for
that is the fibers in the bamboo usually run axially (parallel to its length). It is not
in much use than steel because of its lacking in transfer this tensile strength.
Shrinking power of bamboo is much greater than any other type of wood. We can
say that it is drawback of bamboo that leads to its less usage.
Bamboo usually has high fire resistant capability. It can bear the temperature up
Bamboo has very good elasticity characteristics. It can be used in earthquake
areas due to its elastic nature.
Weight of bamboo:
Bamboo usually has very low weight. So it can be moved to the place of its usage
1.6 PROJECT APPLICATION
Many businesses and consumers are turning to bamboo for many solutions to the
problems that are becoming increasingly more distressing. Some of these solutions
Bamboo paper – With nearly 1 million acres of forest land vanishing a week,
according to Johnson's article, "Use of Eco-Friendly Bamboo Products on the
Rise", using bamboo for paper in offices is essential. It is nearly impossible to
go completely paperless, with technology in different levels in the country, and
all the paper used being made of bamboo helps.
Flooring – Bamboo flooring has been shown to be an easy alternative to
hardwood flooring. As strong as or stronger than the number one hardwood
flooring material, Maple wood, the bamboo is becoming increasingly popular
because of the many finishes it can be acquired in, as well as the strength of the
Housing materials – As a building material, bamboo can be superior to wood.
Taking very little time to replenish, and being comparable in tensile strength to
steel, bamboo is being used more and more in housing and fencing.
Erosion control – Planting bamboo is becoming a defense against erosion
control as well. The thick root systems are excellent in keeping the dirt in place
for other agricultural feats, and for preserving the land.
1.7 PROJECT MOTIVATION
There are many reasons to use this ancient plant as a modern solution to modern
problems. These motivations are based on proven ecological factors that show
conclusively that bamboo is better for the environment. These factors include:
Quick growth- Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants on the planet. It
grows to full maturity in a matter of months or years, while traditional timber
wood takes decades to do so.
Reduction of CO2 – Bamboo is shown to absorb more carbon dioxide than
other plants, and puts out 35% more oxygen than trees.
Rejuvenates soil – As a plant, bamboo rejuvenates soil because removal of the
plant isn't necessary for successful harvesting. The thick root systems keep the
soil in place, and the litter it produces rejuvenates soil that has been damaged by
Grows almost anywhere – One of the best features of bamboo is that it grows
almost anywhere that isn't too cold. Surviving in rain forests as well as deserts,
bamboo needs very little water and no pesticides to survive.
Because of the destruction of forest land and many other ecological problems, man
has been looking for an answer to the heavy usage of timber for paper and other
materials. In the ancient product of bamboo, we may have found it, from bamboo
paper, to bamboo clothing. Easy to produce and environmentally friendly, bamboo
is becoming more and more popular with businesses and consumers alike.