1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
‘Parametricism’ is referred to a number of new trends of design in architecture based
on parametrics. Before that time, parametric design somewhat resided in the margin
of architectural underpinning. It was regarded as a way of tackling problems in
architectural construction rather than an efficient conceptual method for form
generation and testing design alternatives.
Parametric design is a new approach to architectural design based on the concept of
parameters. Parametricism uses parameters to set relations between design elements
in order to define a range of formal alternatives. In this sense, parametric design
provides great opportunities for architects to engineer the design process more
efficiently; The technological evolution has offered new ways for treating the design
process in a new way. The primary task related to this role is focused on the control
and development. The new style claims relevance on all scales from architecture and
spatial design to large scale urban design (Hudson, 2018). The aim of parametric
design is to replace the rigid city patterns and the rigid buildings. Parametric design
involves the study of multiple solutions to architectural design problems. Various
forms can be obtained from parametric design & various parameters can be explored.
Taking a parametric approach to design and construction, high quality results can be
delivered on time. A parametric model reduces the time with complex design changes
while providing a centralized method for communication (Alexander, 2017).
Calibrating all facets of parametric design in the frame of a new style named
‘parametricism’ has raised more arguments; although it has also resolved many
ambiguities which often stem from the absence of a framework. Yet, among the
mainstream architectural practices, parametric design can hardly be recognised as a
new style. Still, many practicing architects talk about the challenges of this type of
design approach. Even some ambiguities emerge from those architects who benefit
greatly from parametric methods, although they may not be aware of the differences
of this approach to design in comparison with a traditional computer-aided approach.
Similarly, inside academia parametric tools are quite popular among students of
architecture. Some students like to apply parametric methods to their design projects
using software packages such as Grasshopper. However, they may not always be
aware of the challenges of these methods because student projects are not real
design situations as experienced by practicing architects (Alexander, 2017).
Parametricism is an architectural style based on computer technology and algorithms.
The concept emerged from the digital animation techniques of the mid-1990s, but
has risen in prominence in the early-21st century with the development of advanced
parametric design. The parametric design approach has resulted in many of the
curving, non-rectilinear buildings completed in the last couple of decades (Alexander,
The term 'parametricism' was coined by Patrik Schumacher, partner at Zaha Hadid
Architects, who promoted it as the natural successor to post-modernism.
According to Schumacher:
‘The style finally closes the transitional period of uncertainty that was engendered by
the crisis of modernism and that was marked by a series of short lived episodes
including post-modernism, deconstructivism, and minimalism. Parametricism is the
great new style after modernism.’
Schumacher theorised that, in becoming the dominant single style for avant-garde
architectural practice, parametricism is able to articulate increasingly complex social
processes and institutions. In terms of aesthetics, the style is characterised by the
elegance of ordered complexity, of fluidity and seamless curvatures that are
reminiscent of systems found in nature.
Schumacher identified the defining heuristics of parametricism as being both positive
(dogmas) and negative (taboos):
Positive heuristics consider the parametrical malleability of all forms, with
systematic inflection, gradual differentiation and correlation.
Negative heuristics include the avoidance of classical architectural
characteristics such as geometric shapes like squares, triangles and circles, as
well as the avoidance of the simple repetition of elements.
The architectural forms of parametric design are based on specific algorithms or
rules. Parametricism links elements, architecture and urbanism as a set of design
criteria which forms a complete ‘system’ of values, that might include the way people
move through the building, their frequency of encounter, their dwell times, and so
on. These values are linked in a similar way to a spreadsheet, with one value change
causing a change in all other related values (Hudson, 2018). The main aim of this work
is to access the use of parametricism in museum buildings.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Computer-aided design or CAD is simply the deployment of computer to assist the
designer in design which has been long in use. The semantic domain of CAD is
considerably broad and in one sense, it even embraces parametric characteristics.
However, in this research ‘traditional’ CAD is actually the point of reference. It echoes
the concepts of computer as a drawing tool and a device for representation rather
than computation (Doucet, 2011). In contrast to CAD, which is long-established, BIM
is a new buzzword in architecture and the construction industry. It stands for ‘Building
Information Modelling’, which literally refers to creating a comprehensive database
for a building. BIM aims to facilitate the collaboration among a design team along
with their engagement with other construction sectors. While the original premise of
traditional CAD was merely to aid the task of drawing – for instance, walls were
embodied as parallel lines – BIM platforms are object-oriented which means that all
of the elements of design such as walls, doors, and windows are intelligent building
objects. BIM provides a single and consistent base for all information associated with
Having seen the functions of the above two traditional drawing aiding software, it was
discovered that they have one similar problem which is the time wasting. The use of
parametricism is came to overcome the problem. The ultimate goal of parametricism
is that a computer could calculate every factor imaginable and deliver a building that
responds to and reflects all of them, thereby achieving architecture based on rational
scientific data as opposed to intuitive artistic judgements (Doucet, 2011).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this paper is to explore the vast scope of parametricism and the way
they have changed the process of museum building designing.
The objectives of this study are:
i. To determine the role of parametricism in museum building design process.
ii. To investigates the position of parametric design
iii. To identify the benefits and drawbacks of parametric design in today’s
iv. To assess the application of parametricism in museum building design
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will throw light on how the use of parametricism in museum building
design has become a revolutionary style that changed the face of architecture. It will
also help the reader to understand role and application of parametricism in
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Parametric theories tend to drift away from the basics of modern architecture such
as ‘form follows function’, ‘purity of form’ and ‘structural honesty’. Evolution and
important characteristics. This paper leads to an analytical approach based on
selected parameters, which are formulated to understand the concept and theories.
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
As we all know that no human effort to achieve a set of goals goes without
difficulties, certain constraints were encountered in the course of carrying out this
project and they are as follows:-
i. Difficulty in information collection: I found it too difficult in laying hands of
useful information regarding this work and this course me to visit different libraries
and internet for solution.
ii. Financial Constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the
researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the
process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
iii. Time Constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with
other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the