Natural ventilation, unlike fan-forced ventilation, uses the natural forces of wind and buoyancy to
deliver fresh air into buildings. Fresh air is required in buildings to alleviate odors, to provide
oxygen for respiration, and to increase thermal comfort. Thermal comfort is often related to the
condition of an individual’s mind which expresses satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the thermal
environment. Man has, for the most part, strived to create thermally comfortable environment.
This is reflected in building traditions around the world – from ancient history to present day. A
healthy and comfortable thermal environment of indoor spaces helps the occupants/students to
improve their academic performance efficiently by maintaining various comfort related parameters
within the desired range. (Shanu, 2010).
According to Andy Walker (2016), Halls of residence are buildings with rooms or flats, usually
built by universities or colleges, in which students live during the term. Usually it is difficult to
manage the problems of residence in distant city from home for students. In such situations, hostels
are considered to be the best solution. Higher educational institutions provide generally hostel
Thermal comfort is considered to be a principal requirement that is usually demanded for by
occupants of accommodation units. A compatible indoor climate design is actually a modification
of the external environment system and is designed to provide comfort for occupants. Thermal
comfort in hall of residence design is an important aspect to be considered by many as it much
influences the health, productivity and performance of the students. Karimipanah. T (2007) stated

that, “Good indoor air quality can actually have a positive impact not just on students’ health but
can also improve learning”.
Thermal comfort varies across climatic zones and as a result, hall of residence and other buildings
should be designed in relation to the climatic zone. It is the role of the architect to understand and
design buildings with minimum cooling loads (artificial ventilation) while also providing for
thermal comfort for the buildings occupants. Unfortunately, there is disregard especially in Nigeria,
where builders and designers do not pay attention to the thermal performance of their buildings,
despite all existing knowledge about design strategies which provide a thermally comfortable
environment in the building by making a very good provision for natural ventilation. In the light of
the above, the project, hence seeks to assess natural ventilation in Bells University of Technology
hall of residence.


The concept of natural ventilation, though theoretically understood, appears to pose a challenge in
terms of its implementation in design. This is more so because of the complexity of establishing a
common ground answer when carrying out subjective evaluation. For university hall of residence
typology, as in school meeting hall, the issue of maintaining an optimum level of ventilation is
crucial. One of the basic objectives in designing buildings is to ensure the thermal comfort to its
Natural ventilation is crucial because it influences productivity and health as non-ventilated hall has
also been known to lead to sick building syndrome (SBS). To face climate problem, architectural
parameters such as building orientation, window opening, roof shape, building performance and
vegetation planning must be considered seriously. Climate modification is also effective to obtain

optimal temperature in building. (Prianto et al, 2000).

The following questions would be answered during the course of this study.
1. What are the physical characteristics of the hall of residence spaces?
2. What are the natural ventilation level in Bell university hall of residence in
terms of objective and subjective evaluation?
3. What is the relationship between the physical characteristics of the spaces and the
objective and subjective evaluation?

In view of the importance of natural ventilation in university hall, the research aim and objectives
are stated below.
The aim of the study is to assess the natural ventilation level in Bells University hall of residence
and provide modification suitable for future designs.
Objectives of the study
The objectives of the study are to:
4. Describe the physical characteristics of the university hall spaces
5. Analyse the thermal comfort level in the university hall based on an
objective and subjective evaluation.
6. Determine the relationship between the physical characteristics of the spaces and
both objective and subjective analysis of the thermal comfort level


The outcome of this study is expected to show the relationship between the tropical climate and the
tropical buildings; the effect of the climate on the building orientation and building components and
how the configuration of the building, building materials and landscape can be used to achieve
maximum natural ventilation in the building. The importance of this study draws on the need for
natural ventilation by the school hall of residence occupants. It will identify the problems causing
the poor natural ventilation. The research will be helpful to improve the said problems identified.
Natural ventilation studies are usually carried out in buildings that are permanent, or semi-
permanent, occupied by the same people, such as dwellings, offices, classrooms. (Karyono et al,
This study will definitely pave a way for the school management to take effective steps in
providing better residential facilities for the students and lecturers. It would also help the author of
this study in acquiring more knowledge that will be useful in practice. The hall of residence was
chosen because is the made for student lodging and gathering.

At Bell University, the main hall, silver hostel and annex are among the oldest halls of residence in
the school as they were built to accommodate the first set of university students who attended
the school when it was still sharing the same compound with The Bells Secondary School before its
relocation. The study is mainly focused on the natural ventilation in hall of residence due to the
increase in number of students. The research involves the distribution of questionnaires to the
students in Bells University to determine their perception and level of comfort in their thermal
environment, the overall analysis of the hall including its orientation, the thermal mass of the hall

i.e. the roof, the walls, ceiling and floor material, the windows (fenestration), size of the room in
relation to the number of occupants and the surrounding landscape.

This study was mostly geared towards architectural solutions: the parameters for experimental tests
were limited due to lack of necessary equipment such as data logger, dry and wet bulb
thermometer, globe thermometer etc. There was limited time frame. Getting the attention of students
in filling the questionnaires was also a hindrance. Due to inability in taking the whole population of
the student in the hall, random selection of students from different wing was utilized in the
distribution of the questionnaires. Some questionnaires could not be retrieved and used for this
study as they were either left blank or damaged.

Terms frequently used in this work are defined are below:
THERMAL COMFORT: this is defined as that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction
with the thermal environment.
NATURAL VENTILATION DEFINITION: the process of pulling fresh air into a building from
the outside. In turn, this fresh air helps force the warm, dirty air inside of the building out through
the opening in the roof. (Andy Walker, 2016)
THERMAL MASS: This is a property of the mass of a building which enables it to absorb and
store heat energy. It is equivalent to thermal capacitance or heat capacity. A lot of heat energy is
required to change the temperature of high density materials like concrete, bricks and tiles. They are
therefore said to have high thermal mass. (Chris et al, 2013)
INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (IEQ): This is the quality of a building’s
environment in relation to the health and wellbeing of those who occupy spaces within it. It

encompasses all conditions inside the building and their effects on occupants or residents. (Tiffany,
PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGY: This refers to a design approach that uses natural elements to
heat, cool or light a building. Passive design approach can be described as the structure of a building
including building orientation, window placement, skylight insulation, building materials or specific
element of a building that was considered during the design stage to make the building thermally
conducive with minimal or without the use of mechanical device. (, 2008).


The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the
work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three
describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter
five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.