1.1 Introduction
Researchers have work on various materials for paving and
method of pavement construction that will provide adequate
support for traffic load with minimum construction cost and
maintenance. The concept of interlocking stone pavers dated back
over 200years ago to the Roman empire where over 800,000km of
roads were built using interlocking paving blocks. The roman
developed a simple system for building roads some of the roads
are still in use today. The roads were constructed with a well
compacted base of lime and gravel covered with a tight fitting cut
stone which produced an excellent and economical roadway that
remained virtually maintenance free in all types of weather (Wilford,
The elements are laid directly on a bedding sand layer with
edge restraints to allow block layer to develop limited load
spreading capacity to keep bond together at great mass and
strength (Wilford, 1994).
Investigation has not been intensified on the use of paving
stone for pavement unlike surface dressed concrete pavement

structures. The potential of different types of paving stone for
pavement structure used as car park or foot paths.
In developing countries paving stone are used for the
construction of paved area on a large scale. The material use in
paving stone are of different variety of colours and shapes which
are most likely have effect on the strength of the stone, they create
unique and creative pattens while providing a surface that is
durable and functional (Akinyemi, et al, 1992).
It is observed that various shapes of these paving stone are
produced and widely used in our locality. These include: roman,
zenith, double T, 3 star etc. And the laying pattern include,
stretcher, running, digalo, bubble glover, diagonal, Herringbone and
parquet bond but in lieu of this, different materials and mix ratio are
used in order to determine various strength and durability of the
paving material. (Shackel, 1990).
Some use dust from quarry with sharp sand and granite of
specified size while others prefer using stone dust with granite only
but the most commonly used are dust from quarry only. During
laying some prefer placing the elements over a graded sand base
and interlocked with bedding and joint sand. The jointing sand

allows the pavers to interlock and structurally function as one
durable layer while others use dust (Sambawa, 2010).
All those variations in materials and production account for
variations in properties, quality and strength and it is therefore
necessary to carry out a research work to know whether the
shapes of the stone has any effect on the strength.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Project
The aims of this project is to determine the followings:
i. To determine the strength of the stone
ii. To know whether the shapes of the stone has any effect
on the strength
iii. To educate student on what they can lay their hand on
after graduation.

1.3 Justification of the Study
Due to the versatile indestructible nature of paving stone or
tiles, they have been used for about every conceivable application
such as residential and commercial garage floor etc. There is need
for indepth study of this interlocking paving stone as to why the
sudden crack or breakdown of the stone pavers.

1.4 Scope of the Project

The scope of this study include, the following:
 The use of cement, quarry sand, sharp sand and water for
the production of the interlocking paving stone.
 The mix ratio used in this project is ratio 1:4 to produce a
certain no of interlocking stone of various shapes these are
Roman, 3 star, double T, Bubble Glover and Didalo tiles were
used as an example in the project
 Also the various laboratory test carried out in this project are
compressive strength test, flexural strength, particle size
distribution or sieve analysis.

1.5 Proposed Methodology
To achieve the above aim and objectives of this research
work, the following steps were taken:
i. Procurement of materials
ii. Preparation of mould
iii. Laboratory tests on the materials
iv. Production of the interlocking paving stone
v. Curing of the stones
vi. Determination of the strengths
vii. Analysis of the results