Sand and Gravel (Aggregate) are generally used in construction of building and other
structures such as Lintel, Slab, Beam and Column. When concrete is freshly mixed the
aggregates are suspended in cement, water, air bubble paste. Selection of types and size
gradation of the aggregate depend upon the nature of the aggregate employed, a fairly precise
balanced between the amount of fine and coarse aggregate size fraction may have to be
maintained to achieve the desire mobility, plasticity and freedom from segregation (Olajide B.T
2013). Presence of aggregate provides an enormous contact area for intimate bond between the
paste and the aggregate surfaces. Rigidity of aggregate greatly restrains volume change of the
whole mass. Aggregate (sand and gravel) can be classified by their mineral, chemical, and
physical properties, aggregate physical properties and direct result of its mineral and chemical
properties, significantly improve the workability of the fresh concrete are contributed by proper
choice of aggregate, this improvement is important in the properties of hardened concrete as
well, such as properties and pavement slipperiness.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research work is comprises the finding of the fine and coarse aggregate from
different area in Ilorin metropolis and uses of different aggregate size for the production of
concrete and the compressive strength test is carryout to determine the compressive strength of
concrete produced with different sizes of coarse aggregate.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Aim of this project is to investigate into the suitability of sand and gravel material
use in the construction of buildings.
1.2.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ARE:
a) To determine how gravel can be use for commercial purpose.
b) To determine the strength capacity of the two materials i.e. sand and gravel for the
purpose of construction.
c) To be able to recommend a particular practicable design ratio for aggregate in the
construction of a building.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The sand and gravel has been the principal construction material worldwide. Sand and
gravel represent loose sediments originated by transport and deposition of more or less worn
rock fragmented of certain size (Gravel 2 to 129mm, sand 0.065 to 2mm) which is the product of
the weathering of rocks.
The ultimate use of sand and gravel determines the ratio of combination of sand and
gravel size, the shape, rock type and composition. Sand and gravel are used mostly in the
building industry in concrete mixtures, as drainage and filtration layers, road base fill and for
foundation stabilization, e.g. sand are used in the building industry in mortar and concrete
mixtures as an opening material in production of bricks.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is based on the experiment conducted in the laboratory of sand and
gravel of Kwara State Polytechnic Ilorin to determine the grade of particular size, likewise the
strength. The scope is as follows:
1. To perform sieve analysis test on fine and coarse aggregate.
2. The production of concrete cube
3. The compressive strength test.
The method used in this project is the selection of different size of aggregate and the uses
of those aggregate in the production of concrete according to British standard (B.S. 8110). The
production of concrete cube is carried out and curing also takes place after the production in
order to achieve maximum strength. There is production for 7days, 14days, 21days and 28days
and compressive strength machine is use for the crushing which gives the actual strength for
each production per day. The essence of this laboratory test is to determine the suitability of sand
and gravel of different size particles in concrete production use in building construction works.