Atmospheric emission of methane (CH 4 ) associated with animal waste are worldwide
problem and may contribute to a detrimental impact on the environment.
CH 4 are important green house gases that are produced anthropogenic ally but mainly
by plant, animal waste and from natural geothermal source. Other green house gases include
CO 2 , NH 3 .
‘Greenhouse’ gases are gases that have a molecular structure such that they obstruct
the radiation of heat from the earth, thus acting like the glass or membrane over a greenhouse.
The gases that are most effective at absorbing this radiated heat are carbon dioxide, methane,
nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons and sculpture hexafluoride.
The above ‘greenhouse’ gases have differing abilities to absorb the heat radiated from
the earth and are assigned factors (their ‘global warning potential’) based on their absorbing
ability relative to that of carbon dioxide. The factors depend on the lifetime over which the
effect of the gases is assessed. A gas which is quickly removed from the atmosphere may
initially have a large effect but over a longer period the effect will be much less important.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Waste products are valuable resources as fertilizer and suitable to be applied to crops
and pastures. However. When concentrated into relatively small geographical area or applied
in excessive amounts, waste can have detrimental environmental effects. This can results in
enhanced CO 2 , CH 4 and N S 0 emission to the atmosphere influencing global warming and
destruction of the ozone layer (mosier, 1998). These gases have long atmospheric lifetimes,
are consequently fairly well mixed and therefore of global as well as local or regional
importance. They represent a most serious threat to global climate in terms of greenhouse
effect and their overall radioactive forcing from pre industrial time to date were estimated as
1.85,0.15 and 0.1.2Wm -2 respectively. Anthropogenic sources account for 70% of the total
annual release of CH4, 16% of which coming from production of waste (IPCC, 1994). Soil
microbial processes accesses account for 65% of the total N 2 ) source strength (5 to 5 TG year –
1 ). These researches measured the emission of NH3 using ToxiREA pro and modeling to
estimate emission by Gabi 6 tools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Scientist agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would led to significant
climate and whether changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the
frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of season.
I. Rising temperature would raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies if fresh wash
water as flooding occurs along coastlines world and salt water reaches inland.
II. Many of the world endangered species would become extinct as raise in temperature
would change their habitat.
III. Millions of people also will be affected especially poor people who live in precarious
locations or depend on land for sustenance living.
IV. Certain vector bam diseases carried by animals or insects such as malaria would
become wide spread as warmer conditions expand their range.
I.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The aim of the project is to model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite.
i. Pollution locator (animal waste)
ii. To quantity emission rate of trace gases from animal waste dump site in Ilorin
iii. To understand better trace gases emission level from pollution and its effect on
iv. To model trace gas pollution from Ilorin animal waste dumpsite
1.4 SCOPE OF RESEARCH:
I. To locate animal waste dumpsite in Ilorin
II. To detect and monitor trace gases from located dumpsite using Toxireapro gas
III. To analyze the effect of trace gases from animal dumpsite to Ilorin environment
IV. And to model the effect of trace gases on the environment
1.5 DEFINATION OF TERMS
1.5.1 TRACE GAS: A trace gas is a gas which makes up less 1% by volume of the Earth’s
atmosphere, and it includes all gases except nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%). The most
abundant trace gas at 0.934% is argon. Water vapor also occurs in the atmosphere with highly
1.5.2 POLLUTION: This is the process of making air, water soil etc dangerously dirty and
not suitable for people to use.
1.5.3 ANIMAL WASTE: Is a material composed of excreta with or without animal dung,
collected from poultry and other animals except human.