As it is known, curing conditions affect strength and durability of concrete
seriously as well as sufficient workability, consistency and effective compacting.
The permeability, which is the main parameter affecting concrete durability, is
directly influenced by curing conditions. The water in concrete should be prevented
from moving away in order to form the hydration reactions that occur in the process
of gaining strength of concrete. For this purpose, concrete should be protected by
performing surface irrigation or similar methods before gaining strength [1-3].
Concrete properties such as strength behaviour, water permeability, permeability of
Cl and CO2, crack characteristic are influenced by curing regimes [4-9], curing
time [4-6, 10-13], curing temperature [11, 13-17] and humidity [18-20]. Some
related studies are summarized below:
The effect of accelerated curing on early age compressive and flexural strengths of
mortars containing fly ash in different quantities was investigated by Yazici and
Sezer , consequently, it has been determined that strength loss, that occurred
under standard curing conditions at early ages due to addition of fly ash, can be
compensated by hot water curing. Bingol and Tohumcu  investigated the effect
of different curing conditions (air curing, water curing and steam curing) on the
compression strength of self-compacting concretes including silica fume and fly
ash. According to the test results, mixture containing silica fume and cured in
water showed the highest compressive strength.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Ceramic products are part of the essential construction materials used in most
buildings. Some common manufactured ceramics include wall tiles, floor tiles,
sanitary ware, household ceramics and technical ceramics. They are mostly
produced using natural materials that contain high content of clay minerals.
However, despite the ornamental benefits of ceramics, its wastes among others cause
a lot of nuisance to the environment. As a general note, Omole and Isiorho 
reported the devastating influence of solid wastes in the Nigerian community.
Ceramic wastes are separated into two categories in accordance with the source of
raw materials . One category is formed through generated fired ceramic wastes
by structural ceramic factories that use only red pastes for product (brick, blocks
and roof tiles) manufacture. The second encompasses fired ceramic wastes which
are produced in stoneware ceramic (wall, floor tiles and sanitary ware). Meanwhile
during ceramic production, studies have shown that about 30% of the material goes
to wastes [3,4], and currently they are not beneficially utilized. This attests to the
need for exploring innovative ways of re-using ceramic wastes. Aggregates
constitute about 70% of total constituents in concrete production. The cost is
increasing as a result of high demand from rural and urban communities.
Numerous researchers have identified ceramics as having the potential to replace
natural aggregates [5,6]. Some investigations have suggested that ceramic wastes
are good materials which could substitute conventional aggregates in concrete
[7–9]. The influence of ceramic tiles wastes on the structural properties of concrete
made using laterite was recently investigated . It was reported that ceramic
based laterized concrete performed considerably well when compared to the
conventional concrete. Overall, ceramic waste utilization can solve problems of
aggregate shortages in various construction sites. Moreover it can reduce
environmental problems related to aggregate mining and waste disposal. However,
most of the previous investigations were carried out using sanitary ware and
electrical insulator ceramics, with not much information as regards the use of
ceramic floor and wall tiles. Thus, there is a need to explore the usability of
ceramic floor and wall tiles, because these ceramic products are produced at
different temperatures which invariably determine their microstructures.
Consequently, the current study explores the mechanical characterization of
concrete made using ceramic floor and wall tiles wastes from construction and
demolition sites as partial replacement of natural aggregates.
1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this work is to determine the characterization of using waste
materials such as ceramics as alternative aggregate materials for construction
under different curing temperatures.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In ceramic industry about 5-10% production goes as waste in various processes
while manufacturing. (This waste percentage goes down if the technology is
installed in the new units.) This waste of Ceramic Industries dumped at
nearby places resulting in environmental pollution causing effect to habitant
and agricultural lands. Therefore using of ceramic waste powder in concrete
would benefit in many ways in saving energy & protecting the environment. The
cost of deposition of ceramic waste in landfills will be saved. An attempt has
been made to study the behavior of SCC with ceramic waste powder and
understands the effect of the mineral admixtures on fresh & hardened
properties of SCC and also investigates the compatibility of ceramic waste
powders in SCC along with chemical admixture such as super plasticizers.
Industrial waste ceramic waste powder would be used in self- compacting
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
At the end of this study, the effect of different curing temperature processes on the 1, 3, 7 and 28-day compressive strength and 28-day water
absorption ratios of cement mixtures were investigated.
1.5 ADVANTAGES OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE
The main advantages of self compacting concrete are:
1. The permeability of the concrete structure is decreased
2. SCC enables freedom in designing concrete structures
3. The SCC construction is faster
4. The problems associated with vibration is eliminated
5. The concrete is placed with ease, which results in large cost saving
6. The quality of the construction is increase
7. The durability and reliability of the concrete structure is high compared to
normal concrete structures
8. Noise from vibration is reduced. This also reduce the hand arm vibration
1.6 DISADVANTAGES OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE
SCC construction face the following limitations:
1. There is no globally accepted test standard to undergo SCC mix design
2. The cost of construction is costlier than the conventional concrete
3. The use of designed mix will require more trial batches and lab tests
4. The measurement and monitoring must be more precise.
5. The material selection for SCC is more stringent
1.7 APPLICATIONS OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE
The major applications of self compacting concrete are:
1. Construction of structures with complicated reinforcement
2. SCC is used for repairs, restoration and renewal construction
3. Highly stable and durable retaining walls are constructed with the help of SCC
4. SCC is employed in the construction of raft and pile foundations
1.8 PROJECT ORGANISATION
The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of
the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three
describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work,
chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.