The rate of competition in the telecommunication industry in Nigeria is moving at a leap
frog basis due to changes in technology, product and services, customer taste among
others. This has made change management experts to emphasize on the importance of
establishing organizations readiness for change and have crafted various strategies for
creating it because successful management of change is crucial to any organization to
survive in the present highly competitive and continuously evolving business
environment. Change management is a planned loom for the transition of individuals,
groups and organizations from existing state to a required future state. Thus, managing
a change process is as important as change itself. This study therefore examines
empirically change management and its effects on organizational performance in
Nigerian telecommunication industries. In conducting this study, a total of 210 staffs of
MTN were randomly selected from a staff population of 460 in Ilorin. Four hypotheses
were advanced to guide the study and data collected for the study were analyzed using
regression Analysis and one-sample t-test. The result revealed that changes in
technology has a significant effect on performance at 5% level of significant and it
follows that there is a significant effect of specific change models/techniques on
organizational performance (P-value=0.000<0.05)other findings reveals that there are
no significant effects of change management implementation on organizational
performance (P-value=0.000<0.05)and that there exists lack of Communication, Poor
Support from Company management, High delay tactics, Technical problems and lack of
Resource & Planning as being the major obstacles that hinders the realization of the
effective management of change in MTN Mobile telecommunication industry at 5% level
of significant. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made that
telecoms industries in Nigeria should be pro-active to changes in such a competitive
environment so as to experience smooth implementation of such changes. The study
therefore concludes that nothing remain still in the world of business as change is the
only thing that is constant. Change managers should therefore successfully manage the
human side of change in order to avoid resistance to change using the appropriate
change strategies, thus, enhancing overall performance of the industry.


Title Page i
Certification ii
Declaration iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii-viii

1.1 Background of the Study 1-7
1.2 Statements of the Problem 7-8
1.3 Research objectives 8-9
1.4 Research questions 9
1.5 Research hypothesis 9
1.6 Significance of the study 10
1.7 Scope of the study 11
1.8 Limitations of the study 12
1.9 Plan of the study 12-13
1.10 Operationalization 13
1.11 Operational Definition of terms 14

2.0 Introduction 15
2.1 Conceptual clarification 15-18
2.2 Theoretical foundation of the study 18-23
2.2.1 Theoretical reviews 23-26
2.2.2 Types of change and change management 26-27
2.2.3 Level of change management 27-28
2.2.4 Importance of managing change 28-29
2.2.5 The catalyst of change process 29-30
2.2.6 Managing change 31-32
2.2.7 Change management practices 32-36
2.8 Challenges of managing change 36-40
2.2.9 Resistance and causes of resistance to change 40-43
2.2.10 Change and its impact on organizations 43
2.2.11 Change management models and frameworks 43-48
2.3 Empirical evidence of the study 48-55
2.4 Research gap 55-56

3.1 Introduction 57
3.2 Research design 57-58
3.3 Research instrument 58-59
3.4 The study area 59-60
3.5 Population of the study 60
3.6 Sampling techniques 60
3.7 Sample size determination 60-62
3.8 Data collection 62
3.9 Method of data analysis 62-63
3.10 Pilot reliability test 63-64
3.11 Ethical considerations 64-65
3.12 Research philosophy 65

4.1 Data analysis and interpretation 66-69
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis 70-81
4.3 Discussion of findings 81-83

5.1 Summary of findings 84-86
5.2 Conclusion 86-87
5.3 Recommendations 87-88
References 89-93
Appendix I: Introduction Letter 94
Appendix II: Questionnaire 95-98


1.1 Background of the Study
Organizational performance is a fundamental variable for telecommunication
industry in achieving its objectives and goals. Employees are an important asset to an
organization that may affect it either positively or negatively. Due to unavoidable
environmental changes, organizations today have been challenged to advocate for
changes that influence Organizational performance. Therefore the top management has
to ensure that factors that influence employees ‘performance are taken into consideration.
Management can be defined as a creative and systematic flow of knowledge that can be
applied to achieve quality results by using human as well as other resources in an
effective way (Drucker, 2003).

The importance of management in organizations today has increased multifold.
Strategic outcomes depend on ways of management in organization, therefore key
management functions that include learning to delegate, planning, organizing,
communicating clearly, motivating employees, adapting to change and constantly
generating innovative ideas are crucial. Change is unavoidable in organizations today
and is of paramount importance to study how change factors affect organizational
performance. Change is what presses us out of our comfort zone and it is inevitable
(Sidikova, 2011). Kitur (2015) is of the view that change comes in an organization in
many forms: merger, acquisition, joint venture, new leadership, technology
implementation, organizational restructuring, and change in products or regulatory compliance. The change may be planned years in advance or may be forced upon an  organization because of a shift in the environment. Organizational change can be radical  and alter the way an organization operates, or it may be incremental and slowly change the way things are done. Change management can be defined as a style of management
that aims at encouraging organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the
changes taking place in their work. (Green, 2007).

For change management to be successful and its impact positive, managers or
supervisors in the organizations need to understand what motivates their team and enroll
employee participation. In fact separating managers from leadership in terms of style is
difficult because every manager needs to have leadership skills to get activities done and
every leader should have managerial skills to induce workers to change directions. This
is especially important in organizations or institutions which are going through change
since constant motivation and guidelines are needed for effectiveness of employee
performance (McLagan, 2002).