Machining is the process in which a tool removes material from the surface of a less
resistant body, through relative movement and application of force. The material
removed, called chip, slides on the face of tool, known as tool rake face, submitting it
to high normal and shear stresses and, moreover, to a high coefficient of friction
during chip formation. Most of the mechanical energy used to form the chip becomes
heat, which generates high temperatures in the cutting region.