The vehicle tracking system is an electronic device that tracks the vehicle’s
location. Most of the tracking system uses GPS module to locate vehicles position
[1]. Many systems also combine communication components such as satellite
transmitters to communicate the vehicle’s location to the remote user. Google
maps are used to view vehicle’s location. The design of the tracking system has
been divided into 3 parts: basic design, intermediate design and advanced design.
The basic design of the vehicle tracking system consists of a GSM module, GPS
module, a microcontroller, a relay circuit and a LCD. In this paper we have
included the sensors to detect the unauthorized intervention. When any
unauthorized user (i.e. a person other than the owner) tries to get access of
vehicle, the system sends an SMS to owner. The user commands the system to
lock down the vehicle remotely. The gates and accelerator pedal are locked down
using instructions from the microcontroller. The speed of the motor is gradually
reduced. Meanwhile the coordinates of the location (i.e. latitude and longitude)
are sent to users mobile. These coordinates can be used to view the location of
vehicle on Google Maps. This system designed for users in land construction and

transport business, provides real-time information such as location, speed and
expected arrival time of the user is moving vehicles in a concise and easy-to-read
format. This system may also useful for communication process among the two
Currently GPS vehicle tracking ensures their safety as travelling [2]. This vehicle
tracking system found in clients vehicles as a theft prevention and rescue device.
Vehicle owner or Police follow the signal emitted by the tracking system to locate
a robbed vehicle.

The aim of this work is to design a device that can track a vehicle when an
unauthorized person tries to gain access of a vehicle, the information is analyzed
using sensors and transmitted to user through GSM and also coordinates of the
location of vehicle are sent via GPS.

The main purpose of this device is to provide security to vehicle owners from
theft and unauthorized access

Vehicle tracking system used to track the theft vehicle Sleep mode / active

mode If theft identified, IR sensor senses the signals and SMS is sent to
i. School transport Tracking: “Vehicle tracking system” can be used in the
school bus for tracking.
ii. This project can be used for detection of cab or car of companies.
iii. Theft Protection: This project can be very useful when your vehicle or car
is stolen.
iv. Sectors in which VTS is used Logistics, Cargo, Distribution, Transportation
Fleet management Public Service VTS avoids misusage Railroads VTS can
monitor the wagons online

Worker resentment: The use of GPS tracking devices cause worker resentment
especially is they are used to track delivery drivers and the location of field
officers. Most fleet management companies use vehicle tracking devices to track
their vehicles and some employees may not be comfortable with the idea that they
are being monitored all the time.

Expenses: It is very expensive to install a GPS tracking system especially for small
companies and this is one of the major disadvantages of GPS tracking. The initial

cost of installation is very expensive and medium sized businesses have to look for
some financing in order to have the system installed in their vehicles.

Overdependence: Workers have a tendency to over rely on different technologies
and vehicle tracking devices is one of them. Fleet management companies can
have a very chaotic time in case of a system breakdown as a result of over
dependence on vehicle tracking devices. It becomes difficult to track deliveries
when there is breakdown because workers are reluctant to step out of their comfort


1) Keep track of employees. This is useful to cut down on employees who are
using vehicles excessively for personal use and skiving off when they are suppose
to be working.

2) Tracking systems can keep an eye on staff driving habits. Managers can
therefore clamp down on people who consistently speed or drive dangerously.

4) For fleets working in London congestion zone alerts are very useful for cutting
down on unwanted fines for not paying congestion zone fees.

5) Tracking systems can also help people to map out the shortest routes a driver
can take which can help to save time, money and fuel.


1. GPS Location can be inaccurate sometimes

A GPS unit calculates the location of the device by receiving and interpreting the
signal from 3 or more satellites. However, technical difficulty can cause blocking
of these signals when the line of sight is blocked by tall buildings, trees or
obstacles in the pathway. Any such issues might cause GPS units to show
inaccurate position and can cause you problems.

There is also the issue of ‘Canyon Effect’ resulting from being surrounded by tall
buildings blocking GPS signal. The signal might keep bouncing around and
therefore fail to reach the GPS unit. GPS units calculate the position and time
based on the time required to receive the signal.

Satellites transmit the signal at a specific rate. The detectors in GPS units are
accurate only up to 10 nanoseconds. Simply, in terms of distance, this is about 3
meters. This is the highest accuracy that any standard GPS unit can offer. Military
version might be more accurate, up to 300 millimetres.

Another important issue is the discrepancy between the GPS receiver clock timing
and the satellite timing which synchronizes the GPS system worldwide. This can
make the time drift away from actual time.

Using a highly precise atomic clock might render the GPS units uneconomic. An
alternative solution is to utilize special algorithms to account for the time keeping
error and reset the clock.

All these issues can be solved to a greater extent by employing GPS units which
lock signals from more than three satellites and precise algorithms.

2. Battery might drain out

Power stoppage can result in malfunctioning of the GPS unit, especially the GPS
systems which work with solar power or those with a good battery life. A passive
GPS unit consumes lots of power even when the vehicle is idle.

Some of the commercial GPS units switch over to sleep mode when the vehicle is
idle or parked so that the battery duration gets longer.  Or you can resort to
versions for which batteries are easily replaceable.

3. Employees might feel offended

Not all employees might feel the same when they are tracked remotely. They
should not feel that they are being spied upon. Considering the advantages offered
by a GPS such as safety and protection from theft, convincing your employees to
utilize the services of GPS vehicle tracking systems might not be a difficult task.

4. Environmental conditions

Environmental conditions might turn drastic. For example, in case of solar flares,
the satellite signals might get affected. However, governmental agencies announce
them early so that those with the GPS units can take precautionary steps to
overcome this difficulty. It might be wiser for you to carry a map in those days.

5. Monitoring travel data might consume time and labour

As fleet managers, you might have to spend considerable time in monitoring the
units for an accurate analysis.

6. Human intervention

Technological spying is a form of electronic warfare and can silently affect these
GPS vehicle tracking systems. GPS jammers are also on the rise, especially used
by disruptive forces. You might be not able to circumvent the effects of these

However, there are other unseen hindrances to GPS signal reception caused by
you. A major disruption can be caused by unknowingly placing a metallic thing
blocking the GPS receiver. The GPS antenna can receive signals through plastic,
but not through metal surfaces.

Placing the GPS unit near the windscreen might affect signal quality in newer
vehicles with metalized glass. Same is the case when your vehicle has a heated
windshield. Heating strips made of extremely thin tungsten wires are nearly
invisible when laid in the windshield glass to keep the ice away.

Such interferences can be solved by placing the GPS antennae in a proper location
within the vehicle after considering the make and type of the vehicle and its
compatibility with the unit.