Declaration ii
Abstract iii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents v
List of Plates ix
List of Tables xi

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Delimitation 4
1.6 Limitation 5
1.7 Importance of the study 5
1.8 Definition of terms 6
1.9 Abbreviation 7
1.10 Organisation of the rest of the text

2.1 Overview 8
2.2 Appraisal 9
2.2.1 Decision model 10
2.2.2 Appraisal theory 10
2.3 Aesthetics 11
2.3.1 Aesthetic judgment 11
2.3.2 Aesthetics and the philosophy of art 12 2.4
Definition of Metal Products Design 13
2.5 History of Metal Working 13
2.6 Common metals used in metal design in Nigeria 15
2.6.1 Definition of metal 15
2.6.2 Gold 15
2.6.3 Copper 16
2.6.4 Silver 17
2.6.5 Iron 17
2.6.6 Brass 18

2.6.7 Aluminum 18
2.7 Common equipment, tools used in Metal Products Design In Nigeria 19
2.7.1 Equipment 19
2.7.2 Tools 19
2.8 Some Metalworks and their uses in Nigeria culture 19
2.8.1 Jewellery 19
2.8.2 Bangles 20
2.8.3 Utensil 21
2.8.4 Furniture 21
2.9 Some working techniques in Metal Products Design 21
2.9.1 Embossing 21
2.9.2 Matting, etching and oxidation 22
2.9.3 Enamelling 22
2.9.4 Repousse 22
2.9.5 Engraving/chasing 23
2.10 Fundamental processes involved in working metal 23
2.10.1 Forming 23
2. 10.2 Cutting processes 24
2.10.3 Joining processes 24 Welding 25 Brazing 25 Soldering
2.11 Designing of Metalwork
2.12 Product Design

2.13 Industrial Design 26
2.14 Skills needed

3.1 Overview 28
3.2 Research Design 28
3.3 Library Research 29
3.4 Population for the study 30
3.5 Sampling 30
3.6 Data collecting instruments 31
3.7 Primary and Secondary Sources of Data 31
3.8 Administration of Instruments 32
3.8.1 Observation 32
3.8.2 Questionnaire 32

3.8.3 Interview 33
3.9 Data Collection Procedures 33
3.10 Data Analysis Plan


4.1 Overview 35
4.2 Responses from Questionnaire by students of Metal Product Design 35
4.3 Responses from Questionnaire by lecturers of Metal Product Design 40
4.4 Interview 44
4.5 Discussion of Results 47
4.5.1 Lecturers and technicians 48
4.5.2 Students questionnaire and practical works 49
4.5.3 Analysis of students works 83
4.5.4 Tool, equipment and other facilities 84
4.5.5 Shortcomings, future prospects and challenges 85
5.1Overview 87
5.2 Summary 87
5.3 Conclusions 90
5.4 Recommendations 91

Appendix A Questionnaire for Students 96
Appendix B Questionnaire for Lecturers 99
Appendix C Interview Guide 102 LIST OF PLATES
Plate Page
Plate 4.1: Silver Chain (2008) 50


Plate 4.2: Silver Chain (2007) 51
Plate 4.3: Silver Chain with pendant (2008) 53
Plate 4.4: Silver Chain with gemstone (2006) 54
Plate 4.5: Brass crown with gemstones (2004) 55
Plate 4.6: Brass crown with gemstone (2004) 56
Plate 4.7: Light scorn shade (2006) 57
Plate 4.8: Mirror frame made of Brass, copper and Aluminum (2004) 58
Plate 4.9: Aluminum and brass wall clock (2005) 60
Plate 4.10: Light scorn made of brass and copper (2005) 61
Plate 4.11: Brass trophy (2005) 62
Plate 4.12: Copper wall Hang (1999-2009) 63
Plate 4.13: Stainless steel hand mirror (1999-2009) 64
Plate 4.14: Brass table decorative piece (1999-2009) 65
Plate 4.15: Palm nut washing and squeezing machine (2003) 66
Plate 4.16: Aluminum wall embossed piece, integrated with brass, paper 67
and cloth (2008)
Plate 4.17: Brass and copper lampshade (2006) 68 Plate 4.18:
Aluminum wall embossed piece integrated with foam, sand and 69 colour
Plate 4.19: Ceramic cup with enamel and wooden handle (1999-2009) 70
Plate 4.20: A cup made of stainless steel ceramics and Wooden handle 71
Plate 4.21: Metal Sculpture made of galvanised sheet, Iron rods and 72
tiles (2008)
Plate 4.22: Filigree metal sculpture made of iron sheet, Iron and wire (2009) 73
Plate 4.23: Coffee table made of glass, iron rod and Galvanized sheet (2007) 74
Plate 4.24: Side table made of wood and iron rod (2002) 75
Plate 4.25: Centre table and lamp shade made of galvanised tube (2009) 76
Plate 4.26: Storage carbinet made of glass and stainless Steel (2006) 77
Plate 4.27: Jewelry box made of copper and brass ( 1999-2009) 78
Plate 4.28: Liquid kettle made of copper (1999-2009) 79
Plate 4.29: Spice container with stand made of stainless Steel (1999-2009) 81

Plate 4.30:

Straining spoon made of stainless steel (2004) 82


Table Page
Table 4.1a Gender of the respondents 35

Table 4.2a Academic year of Respondent 36
Table 4.3a Do you think jewelry is the most work produced at the metal 36


Table 4.4a What are the types of jewelry produced in the Section? 37
Table 4.5a Are you satisfied with works produced by students of metal 37
Table 4.6a Are the metal works produced at metal Section enough to 38
meet growing need of Nigeria economy?
Table 4.7a Are you satisfied with the equipment, tools and Material used at 38

the metal section?

Table 4.8a What do you think are the difference between the Works produced 39
by students of the metal section and works produced by local
metal designer In town?
Table 4.9a Is it advisable for compulsory industrial attachment for metal 39
products design students in KNUST?
Table 4.1b Gender of Respondents 40
Table 4.2b How best can you compare the works produced by students 40
1999/2000 – 2003/2004 academic year to student works
produced from 2004/2005 – 2008/2009 Academic year ?
Table 4.3b To what percentage is jewelry produced by students 41
at the metal Section?
Table 4.4b Are you satisfied with works produced by students so far? 41
Table 4.5b What are the major work students produce in the section? 42
Table 4.6b Can you draw a line between works produced by students 42
in the section and the work produced by local metal producers?
Table 4.7b: Is there sufficient equipment, tool and material at the section? 43
Table 4. 8b: What strengths and weaknesses have you realised in students works? 43
Table 4. 9b: Is it advisable for Industrial attachment for Metal Product Design Students? 43




1.1 Background to the Study
In 1964, Metal Products Design Programme (MPDP) was introduced in Kwame
Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. The establishment of the MPDP was to
contribute to effective utilization of precious and non-precious metal in Nigeria.
Although the MPDP was started by a German metal artist, the objective was to improve
the metal art industry in Nigeria to meet the growing need of the country in both artistic
and quantitative way.
Notably, before the introduction of the MPDP there were metal works produced
by artisans who were serving the metal industry in this country. The introduction of
MPDP was to establish excellence in the metal art industry. The goal was to train
students to be efficient in metal technology and to differentiate between art and artisan
works. This means students should be able to combine metal art and metal work to
produce formidable metal product design works.
The four year programme has the following breakdown. In year one, general
courses are taught. In year two, students are taught jewelry work and decorate work. The
third year sees to it that students produce works related to jewelry and fabricate metal. In
the final year, students are given the choice to choose among jewelry, decorative work
and metal fabrication work. There is one exception at the MPD section. That is, in final
year, students are expected to combine all that have been taught from year one to four to
produce a project work. This means more often, students produce works that exhibit
proficiency of metal technology and metal art.

Without a studio and a workshop, students of Metal Products Design are making
use of the few equipment and tools at the section. Although space has become a problem
for students at the Metal Products Design section, there are other challenges. These
include increasing number in student intake, insufficient supervision due to the
unfavourable student- lecturer ratio and lack of funds to provide materials such as gas
and palm nut cover which aid students to fashion their works.
In this light, the researcher wants to find out the strengths and weaknesses of
students’ works and what should be expected of works of students in the future. Also the
researcher will look at what can be done to help students in their works.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Metal Products Design (MPD) is the creative ability to use metal to produce
functional and ornamental items. As a developing country, metal products design has
helped to make use of our metal substances such as gold, brass, copper and others.
In Nigeria, the MPD has a lot of functions. These functions have contributed a lot
in our society. For instance, from our traditional to modern homes, we see metal products
design. A Nigeria kitchen can boast of metal products design such as sauce pan, tea
strainers, spoons, laddles, plates, forks, knives, coalpots, just to mention a few. One
cannot forget about our sitting rooms and bedrooms which are decorated with metal
chairs, mirror frames and television stands.
In addition, Nigeria houses most of the time have metal gates with intricate
designs. The windows and the door frames of some houses are all works of the metal
products designer. In the hospitals, patients’ beds, tools and medical equipment are

mostly made of metal. Offices in Nigeria have metal chairs, metal cabinets, metal desks
to serve as rest for computers and metal clips for clipping. Institutions, churches and
other organizations also make use of metalworks like chairs, tables, podium, watch
frames and incense burners.
In the case of jewellery, necklaces, rings, bracelets, ear rings, cufflinks, tie-pins
and hair pins are used by individuals to beautify themselves on occasions and daily
activities. In our palaces, the chiefs are royally dressed and adorned with jewelleries
which are metal products design.
It is obvious to note that metal products design is now one of the major
contributors to all areas of human needs. It is in regard of the growing need for MPD that
in 1964, KNUST introduced the programme. This programme which awards Bachelor of
Art degree (Industrial Art Metals) was to help meet the growing need of MPD in the
country. Although jewellery is important in our society, it seems the MPD section is
noted for its production than any other metal work. As of now the students in and outside
the University who know the MPD section classify it as Jewellery section. One can
clearly state that the name MPD means more than the works being produced at the
Section. The works that MPD can produce for use in the home and office of Nigerias as
viewed in the direction of works produced at the MPD Section of KNUST indisputably
raise a lot of questions in the minds of people. This means that there is a problem of what
KNUST MPDP is all about especially works produced by students. Since the section is
known for producing jewellery works more than the other MPD works, students produce
limited kinds of work and one cannot tell whether the works are art works or artisan

It is in the light of this problem that the researcher wants to take a study of works
produced by the students of MPD section to educate the public about works of students,
what the works of students entails and the future direction of students’ works.

1.3 Objectives
1. To identify and describe selected types of works produced by students of MPD section.
2. To discuss the sources of ideas, processes, tools and materials and equipment used by
students to produce their works.
3. To appraise selected types of works produced by students of the MPD section to ascertain
their strengths and weaknesses.

1.4 Research Questions
1. How will the study identify and describe selected types of works produced by students of
the MPD section?
2. To what extent will the study discuss sources of ideas, processes, tools and materials and
equipment used by students in executing their works?
3. To what extent will the study bring out strengths and weaknesses of students’ works at
the MPD section?

1.5 Delimitation
This research is limited to selected works fashioned by students of MPD Section of
Faculty of Industrial Art of KNUST from 1999/2000 to 2008/2009 Academic year.

1.6 Limitations
The researcher encountered some problems. First, one lecturer at the MPD section
could not to respond to the questionnaire though the questionnaire was collected. Again,
some lecturers did not make themselves available to respond to interview though
interview guide was given to them before hand.
Some students also did not answer all the questions in the questionnaire while
others took them to their hostels and did not return them. Some of students’ works kept
in the store room were nowhere to be found. The researcher had to do with the remaining
works of students in the store room.

1.7 Importance of the Study
• The study would bring into focus the trend of works produced at the MPD section and its
impact in the metal industry.
• The study would help enlighten the University authorities and lecturers on the scope of
strengths, weaknesses and the future direction of MPD section.
• It would also serve as wake up call for the MPD section by updating the section about the
scope of strengths, weaknesses and the future direction of the MPD section.
• The thesis would add to the existing knowledge on MPD works at the metal products
design section.
• It would also serve as a source of reference for further studies to future researchers,
writers and publishers and the metal products designers.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Metallurgy :Is the science and technology of metals, including the extraction of

metals from ores, the preparation of metals for use, and the study of the
relationship between structures and properties of metals.

Jewellery : Is ornaments of precious metals, sometimes set with gems, worn since
ancient times by people of all cultures for personal adornment, as badges of
social or official rank, and as emblems of religious, social, or political

Malleable : Describes a metal or other substance that can be shaped or bent without
Ductile : Ability to draw out metal into wire or hammered into very thin sheets.

or to be able to mold or shape metals without breaking

Blacksmith : Is one who forges and shapes metal with an anvil and a hammer.
Metalsmith : Somebody who is skilled at making and repairing metal objects
Silversmith : Somebody who makes or repairs silver or silver-plated objects
Tinsmith : A maker or repairer of objects made of tin or other easily worked
Welding : A process in which two or more pieces of metals are joined together by

the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both.
Alloy : A substance composed of two or more metals. Alloys, like pure metals,

possess metallic luster and conduct heat and electricity well, although not
generally as well as do the pure metals from which they are formed.

Electroplating : Electrochemical process for depositing a thin layer of metal on,

usually, a metallic base.

1.9 Abbreviations
MPD: Metal Products Design
IAMPD: Industrial Art Metal Products Design
MPDP: Metal Products Design Programme
KTI: Kumasi Technical Institute

1.10 Organization of the rest of Text
Chapter one is about the introduction which constitutes the background to the
study, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions, delimitation, limitation,
importance of the study, definition of terms, abbreviation and organization of the rest of
the text.
Chapter two deals with the review of related literature. This include, appraisal,
aesthetics, definition of Metal Products Design, history of metal working, common metal,
equipment and tools used in metal products design in Nigeria, some metal works and
their uses in the Nigeria culture, some working techniques in Metal Products Design,
Fundamental processes involved in working metal and designing of metal work.
Chapter three focuses on the methodology which comprises the following:
research design, library research, population for the study, sampling, data collecting
instruments, primary and secondary data, reliability and validity of data and information,
data collecting procedures, analyzes and interpretation of data.
Chapter four is the presentation and discussion of findings.
Finally chapter five spelled out the summary, conclusions and recommendations.